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II] PRIMITIVE FORMS OF BUILDING 9

the Swedish summer farms, are very similar in construction : they
are illustrated in the guide to Skansen.

Fig. I shows this charcoal-burners’ but and the wood pile, pre-
pared for burning, in the wood ; and a view of the but to a larger
scale is given in Fig. 2.

Mr H. S. Cowper has described1 a somewhat similar hut, but
of a more advanced type in that the tops of the posts forming
the tripod were fastened together by a withy, and the sods were laid
overlapping each other like tiles. Poles, etc., were laid against the

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Fig. 1. South Yorkshire charcoal-burners’ hut of branches and turf (to left)
and wood pile prepared for burning (to right).

sloping roof-wall of the hut in order to prevent these sod-tiles from
being loosened by wind or rain. The hut was 7 ft. 9 in. high inside,
and its width was II ft. Mr Cowper thinks that these circular huts
represent the ‘ woodland wigwams of the Britons of Ancient
Cumbria,’ but it is possible that similar huts were used as

dwellings until much later times, and Scandinavian influence is
suggested by the poles laid on the sods, and by the sods them-
selves. It is curious that the ‘houses’ of flat stones laid on the

1 Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorlana' Antiquarian and Archaeological
Society, XVI (1901).

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