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it is evidence that the crucks are not of the same date, or that they
have been altered. If a pair of crucks is examined on the side
across which the tie-beam runs, there are generally one or more
parallel cuts to be found, on the surface of the tie-beam at the
halving, and also on the cruck slightly above the tie-beam. On the
first pair of crucks and their tie-beam there is one cut: on the
second, two: and so on. It is thus possible to tell whether any
pair of crucks is missing, and in one case, where a cottage had been


Fig. 19. End elevation of the crucks and other framework of the house “ Dike Side,”
Midhope, South Yorkshire, in process of demolition.

built between buildings on crucks, an examination, by the writer, of
the cuts on those remaining, showed that the crucks had once been
continuous. It is also possible to tell from the figures whether the
crucks are in their original position. From this careful marking of
the separate pieces of timber it is evident that they were worked
and fitted together away from the building site, and probably at
the place where the wood was felled, in order to save the cost and
trouble of the carriage of the portions which would be wasted in
working up. A preliminary fitting together of building timber in
the forest is widespread, and in Russia the building itself is put

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