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IV] CURVED TREE PRINCIPALS 51

evidence for the adoption in stud work of a usual method of fixing
wattle stakes.

Further economy was possible with the timber, and in the third
method the tops of the crucks were cut off horizontally, the short
tie or collar was fixed across the top of them, and the ridge-tree
laid flatly, instead of diagonally, as it had been in the previous
methods. '

It is possible to classify the crucks in the neighbourhood of
Sheffield into types according to the relationship between ridge
and collar as follows:

(i) the crucks halved together at the top, with projecting ends
forming a fork in which the ridge lies, but without a collar (Fig. 21):

(ii) the same with the addition of a collar connecting the
crucks at about the level of the purlins:

(iii) the crucks merely touching at their tops, and forming an
angle in which the ridge-tree rests, and with the collar in any
position between the purlins and the ridge (Figs. 18 and 22):
usually the higher the collar, the later is the date of the con-
struction :

(iv) as the last, but with an additional collar below the first:

(v) the tops of the crucks cut oFf level, the short tie, or collar,
mortised on them, and on it the ridge-tree fixed flatly instead of
diagonally, as in the other types.

In N Ovember, 1912, some very old cottages at Little Attercliffe,
SheFfield, were demolished. They were built on crucks, of which
there were two pairs, contemporary in date, but not in type, as the
junctions of the tops of the crucks differed. In one pair the
junction was of the early crossed type: in the other, of the more
developed type, with a short tie. Thus these crucks at Little
Attercliffe were an example of the overlapping in methods which
renders caution necessary in the dating of Ordinary buildings and
they showed how the craftsman compromised between the old
method and the new. The same difference in types was to be seen
in the crucks of the barn or ‘ chapel’ at Cowley Manor (Fig. 21).
The crucks were contemporary in this case also, as the numbering
showed.

These crucks at Little Attercliffe, the only examples in the city
of Sheffield which the writer has been able to examine with the
case which attends demolition, were also interesting, because they

4—2

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