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72 CURVED TREE PRINCIPALS [Cl-I. V

method of building was adopted for the roofs of Irish Romanesque
buildings with vertical walls, and also for the strange South
Pembrokeshire churches of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
From South Pembrokeshire the Anglo-Normans had set sail for the
conquest of Ireland, after they had conquered South W'ales, and so
there is some possibility that the English- became acquainted with
the pointed barrel vault in that way. It must be said that one or
two of the oratories are shaped internally like a reversed ogee and
the roofs of some of the later buildings are somewhat like a
Mansard roof, both of which recall to mind certain forms of crucks ;
it is possible that the form of the oratories was derived from
boat-shaped buildings which have perished, as there is no evidence
for crucks in Ireland as far as the writer has been able to ascertain.
The evidence in favour of the derivation of the pointed arch
from other sources is strong, and must be preferred to theories of
its wooden origin.

We have now to consider the more advanced methods of
building by which the crucks were succeeded.

The old builders did not distinguish between the crucks and the
principal rafters. It has been shown that the crucks were known
as siles and levers and that the principal rafters are known by the
same names, and the writer finds the same confusion in Wales
where the old principal rafters are called ‘ cwpl ' like the crucks.

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