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VI] FULLY DEVELOPED TIMBER BUILDINGS 75

Although it was usual to use the same oak timber in successive
rebuildings, the crucks in the Sheffield district show no signs of
previous use: they were evidently new timber when they were
framed up as crucks. This is not the case with the post and truss
buildings, in the framing of which crucks have been veryevidently
reused. At a Derbyshire house built in the year I658—Offerton
Hall, in the vale of Hope—the principal rafters of the roof, visible
in the attics, seem to be the reused crucks of an earlier and one-
storied house. In some seventeenth century buildings at Langsett
and Penistone, South Yorkshire, crucks from older buildings were
used for tie-beams in post and truss buildings.

The posts of the buildings in the Sheffield district, and also in
Kent and Surrey, and possibly in other counties are placed upon
their heads, with the butt, or root end, at the top: the crucks on
the contrary are placed naturally, as the trees' grew. Sixty years
ago, in a wooden fence which had been fixed for fourteen years, it
was found that all the posts which were fixed in the same direction
as the growth of the timber had rotted, but that those which were
inverted had remained sound‘.

Another difference between the buildings-on crucks and those
constructed with posts and trusses is more important than it seems:
in the former the wall-plate is carried by the tie-beam, while in the
latter the tie-beam is laid upon the wall-plate.

Post and truss buildings of the fifteenth and of the seventeenth
centuries are still numerous, but this kind of construction reached
its height in the sixteenth century. The buildings then erected
are of this kind wherever the necessary timber was obtainable and
the number of examples which still remain is very large. All the
most celebrated timber and plaster buildings of England are of
this type, and generally they are of the sixteenth or early seven-
teenth century. Not only the richly decorated old halls of
Cheshire, but the humble cottages over wide districts of our
country are framed on a skeleton of this fashion under their
wrought pargetting or their rough daub. In the south-eastern
counties of England the post and truss method of construction
is supreme in timber built buildings2, and in South Yorkshire

1 Builder, XII (1854), p. 468.
'3 As far as the writer knows, no examples of any framed-timber construction older
than the post and truss method are to be found in the counties shown by widely-hatched

lines on the map (Fig. 12). Greensted church is hardly to be called an example of framed
construction.

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