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92 THE CARPENTER [cm

is wain reeve. In the fifteenth century the word was variously
translated carpenter, cartwright, and wright. Probably a large
number of carts were ‘sleds’ without wheels, such as were used in
the streets of Bath, Bristol and Derby in the time of William and
Mary according to the diary of Celia F iennes, and are still used
on farms in North Derbyshire. The wright who specialised in
wheels was called a wheelwright and it is likely that the making
of carts became a specialised industry before the construction of
buildings and that the wright, as the professional woodworker,
took to the construction of the buildings as they were developed
beyond the constructive capacity of their owners.

The joiner was another craftsman in wood who occupied
himself with building. At first he seems to have been what we
should now call an upliolsterer, who probably worked also at the
frames of the furniture, for the numbers of the joiners, as makers
of furniture, increased with that rise in the standard of culture in
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries which brought furniture
into general use for the first time among the middle class. Such
furniture is the ‘joined’ furniture of the wills and inventories of the
time, and many of the joiners were foreigners. The joiners then began
to take part in the fitting up of buildings and in the seventeenth
century there were contentions between them and the carpenters
as to their proper work, analogous to recent misunderstandings
between the plumbers and the heating engineers. In each case,
the cause was the irritation of the members of an ancient craft at
what they considered to be an intrusion on their work by one that
was comparatively new. In the year 1632 the differences between
the work of the carpenter and that of the joiner were similar to
those of the present day, and Moxon wrote ‘joynery is an Art
Manual, whereby several Pieces of Wood are so fitted and joined
together by straight Lines, Squares, Miters, or any Bevel, that they
shall seem one intire Piecel.’ In the year 1672 the carpenters
complained that ‘without question the joyners trade before their
incorporacon was chiefly to make and sell joyned ware, as bedsteds,
tables, chaires, stooles, etc., and to joyne and ceele only, and not
to doe any other worke about building of houses but what the
Carpenters imployed them in (wich they did for expedicon only),
themselves generally doeing those workes they imployed them in.’
Since then they have composed their quarrels and the two trades

1 zllec/zauz'rk Exercises, p. 59.

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