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paid for his labour on the materials which" his employer provided.
Professor Thorold Rogers1 found smiths and carpenters very
rarely mentioned in the rent rolls of the manors. Later, the
carpenter provided and was paid for both the materials and his
labour. Rogers found that the earliest capitalist artisans who dealt
in finished goods lived in the eastern counties and London, and that
their transactions were with opulent individuals or with wealthy
corporations. This is another instance 'of the influence of the
Continent upon English civilisation. In the fifteenth century the
carpenter began to employ other carpenters to work for him,
either on his own materials or on those provided by the employer,
and by the seventeenth century there was a possibility that the
successor of the former servant of the community or its lord
might become a capitalist employer. These three, the carpenter
providing his own labour only, the carpenter providing his own
labour and the materials in addition, and the capitalist employer
with other carpenters working for him, have all continued to the
present day, as each is of use according to the kind of work to be

As recently as the year 1792, in the parish of Naseby, in
Northamptonshire, which at the time was still cultivated under
the old common—field system, ‘The farmers, twenty-one in number,
who keep teams, support constantly four working blacksmiths, two
working wheelwrights, besides carpenters,’ 'and in addition workmen
of other trades unconnected with building”.

As the carpenter held land, he must have done a little farming,
and this seems to have been usual with all the village craftsmen;
Rogers found that the employers of such a craftsman as the
carpenter occasionally purchased agricultural produce from him or
from his wife. One of the carpenters in the Glastonbury ‘Book,’
a certain William, held five acres and a mill at Shapwick for
three shillings (‘ soldi ’), but ought, the surveyor noted, to have paid
five shillings”. In the Burton Chartulary, one Thorold, another
carpenter who held a mill, had to do all the works of the church
which pertained to his office, both of wood and lead. The latter
was too expensive a metal to be used in the ordinary buildings
described in this history, except in the neighbourhood of lead

1 Six Centuries 4 Work and Wages, pp. 46, I79 and 338.
2 Rev. John Mastin, [Victory mm’ Anh'qm'tie: (3f Nauby, p. l 5.
3 Lz'lw- llenrz'cz' de Soliaco, Abbatz': Clayton, p. 54.

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