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wooden boards very strongly compacted together (‘vallo ex
ligneis tabulatis firmissime compacto’)‘. When such timbers are
arranged so as to form an enclosure, and roofed over, they form a
strong and simple but costly building. '

We shall see that one line of descent of the later medizeval
‘half timber’ work is from such timber walls as those at Greensted.
It has already been shown that the boughs used as rafters were
squared in course of time, and the same development took place with
the walls: from the whole tree trunks of the early Germanic walls
descended the half trUnks of Greensted church, with results which
were economically and aesthetically favourable, and in a further
development the half trunks were squared. Mr S. O. Addy, in his
Cluter and Manor” says that either in the reign of Alfred or of
Canute, it is not clear in which, a church was built at Bury
St Edmunds, then called Bedricsworth, of ‘ wooden boards.’ On
a certain occasion it was attacked by robbers, one of whom tried to
dig under the wall with spades and mattocks. The noise which
the robbers made awoke a man who was sleeping in the building.
In buildings upon which less labour was expended than upon the
church, tree trunks like those at Greensted and such boards as
those at Bury St Edmund’s, would not be jointed, but merely
caulked with some sort of adhesive material, such as clay or earth
or moss, as is done still in the wooden buildings of Canada and the
United States. In the Preceptory at Chilborn, Northumberland,
a building of the end of the fourteenth century, ‘the partitions
were of oak plank placed in a groove at top and bottom, with a
narrow reed ornament on their faces, 3 in. in thickness, placed at a
distance of 12 in. and the interstices filled with loam?" These
Chilborn partitions appear to have been inside the building, and
old methods of forming outer walls are used in the interiors of
buildings long after they have been banished from the outer walls
in favour of improved and stronger methods. Buildings of this
kind with outer walls formed of upright studs, filled in between
with mud, are still to be seen in Denmark.

The stud partitions which were so us'ual for the interior divisions
of English buildings, until the comparatively recent introduction of
patented partitions, are the descendants of solid walls of wood like
those of Greensted church. It is well known that the older the

1 Manuel d’Arr/u‘o/qgie Frangaz'se, II, p. 499. 2 p. 44.
3 Didionary eff/1e Arr/ziler/m'al I’M/Ilimh'on Sade/y, 3.2!. Partition.

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