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Ix] WALLS I I 3

and the carving, as a rule, more primitive than in the South Eastern
counties‘.

When the bearing of the beam was over twenty feet between
the principal posts in the post and truss buildings, smaller posts
called prick posts were sometimes inserted between the large posts.
Moxon advised that these intermediate posts should not run up the
whole height 'of the building as did the corner posts, but only from
storey to storey. The studs were also called quarters and puncheons,
and in Moxon’s time single quarters were 2 in. x 4 in. and double
quarters were 4 in. x 4 in. in scantling.

We have seen that the wall studs of the ‘ stridsuler’ buildings
of Denmark were the last part of the building to be erected? In
South Yorkshire the writer has found that, wherever there is a
building ‘ on crucks,’ it is accompanied by the tradition among the
old people that the walls were put up after the roof, and in cruck
buildings as they exist to-day, this is literally the case, for the walls
seem to be always of comparatively modern stone work or brick
work, but the tradition is much older than the modern walls. Even
in a few examples, where the stone walls are possibly of the date
of the crucks, they have evidently been fitted to the timbers and,
we have already seen" that in the large barn at Peterborough, built
in the year 1307, the wooden posts and roof trusses were indepen-
dent of the stone walls, and must have been erected before them,
as, at the destruction of the building, the wooden posts and roofs
still stood securely when the stone walls were pulled down.

Byrhtferth, an Anglo-Saxon author of the tenth century, whose
description of the building of a house has been printed in the
German periodical A ng/z'a, VIII, says, ‘The rafters are fastened to
the ridge tree and propped underneath with cantles,’ (which were
studs or quarters), ‘and then the house is agreeably adorned‘.’
This shows that the method of inserting the wall studs, after the
roof was reared, is at least a thousand years old in this country,
and its existence in Denmark gives it a wider significance. In
ancient times the roof was regarded as the most important part of
the building, whereas, at the present time, the building laws are
more concerned with the walls. The explanation lies in the
gradual evolution of modern buildings from those early structures

1 Parkinson and E. A. Ould, Old Collages, Farm-Homes and other half-timber
building: in Shrops/u're, Hcreybrdrlzz're and C lacs/tire, p. 2.
2 Ante, p. 21. 3 Ante, p. 74. 4 p. 324.

I. B. C. 8

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