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126 WALLS [cm

I 776, when, for the sum of £20, he erected such a scaffold around
the spire of Islington church, within which was a spiral staircase
from the tower to the vane‘.

The walls made of basket work or wattlework had been
improved, in prehistoric times, by covering them with earth, clay
or some other adhesive material. This is now generally called
‘daubing,’ and, like the wattling, it has a variety of names in the
English dialects.

Mr G. W. Smith has described2 wattle-and-daub discovered at
the Queen’s Head Inn, Down, Kent, which is said to have been
built in the fifteenth century. The rods were I in. or % in. thick,
mostly hazel sticks with the bark on, and both bark and stick were
found to be as sound and tough as when it was fixed, and every little
vein in the bark perfect. Mr Smith says that they came across
several sticks of ash, quite worm-eaten and rotted, and often the only
material left in the clay to show their position. Straw was mixed
with the pug or clay in order to toughen it, and it is said that the
working of the ‘ dab ’ into the ‘ wattle ’ was done by two men, one on
each side, so that they met together on the ‘wattle,’ and then kept
throwing it until they got on the thickness wanted. The front or
outside was then combed or lined out with a pointed stick.

Mr Bankart thinks that few specimens of wattlework are now
remaining, but it is of course hidden behind the plaster, and so is
not apparent. It is still common in many districts of England
and Wales. As an example, Rev. R. K. Bolton has described a
mediaeval cottage at Ffenny Bentley, Derbyshire, in which some
of the interior walls were composed of wattle like basket work,
with the uprights about a foot apart and about I in. thick, the
interlacings slightly lighter, composed of unpeeled twigs of what
appeared to be hazel". These examples from Down and Ffenny
Bentley are of the most usual kind of English wattle and daub.

Wattled walls were used by the Romans, and their liability to
decay and act like torches in a fire caused Vitruvius to regret that
they had ever been invented. One cause of the decay, he found,
was that the walls were always full of cracks. These arose from
the crossing of the laths or twigs, for when the plastering was laid

1 Dictionary qftlze Arr/zilerlural Publication Social], 3.22. Scaffold.

2 In Mr Bankart’s Art (yr t/ze Plastercr, pp. 55 et seq. There is an illustration from

a photograph.
3 A church in the Peak of Derbyshire in the A’e/iyumy, N.S., VI (1900), p. 93.

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