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146 WALLS [CIL

be original too—had had the oak timbers all hacked over outside
to form a key for plaster, and the whole surface was plastered
over, oak and panels alike, forming a plastered housel.’ Such
work was laid on with a float or other tool, but daub was thrown
at the wattle, and this seems to have been the recognised method
from East Anglia to South Pembrokeshire. Rough-cast is now
thrown and not laid on, and like the old method of daubing is
probably a survival from the time when the plasterer’s tools were
his hands. In the year 1519, \Vm Horman wrote in his Vulgaria,
‘ Some men wyll have theyr wallys plastered, some pergetted, and
whytlymed, some roughe caste, some pricked, some wrought with
playster of Paris‘-‘.’

The workman who constructed the walls was known as a wall-
wright in the tenth and eleventh centuries, according to the
contemporary glossaries, and the word is a usual translation of
‘cementarius,’ that is, a worker in plaster or daub. In another
eleventh century gloss ‘cementarius’ is translated by stonewright
as is ‘lathomus ’ by Aelfric in the preceding centurys. The word
‘dealbabor' is translated in a tenth century gloss as ‘ic beo
gehwitad,’ that is, I am whitened. The word ‘dauber,’ widely
spread in England, is derived through the French from the Latin
‘ dealbare ’ meaning to whiten, and according to the Oxford Englis/z
Dictionary does not appear in English before the fourteenth century
(‘in that cofer that watz clay daubed’). The word was not
restricted to whitening walls but applied indiscriminately to the
daub or plaster of solid walls, of wattle, or of laths. In the year
1538, Elyot defines ‘cementarii’ as ‘daubers, pargetters, rowghe
masons whiche do make onely walls,’ and the modern term
‘stonemason’ implies that there were once masons who made
walls of other materials than stone. In Devonshire the workmen
who constructed buildings of cob were known as cob masons.
According to the occasionally vague Dictionary (f t/zc Arc/zi-
tcctnrai Publication Society ‘in the West of England, the mason
that sets the stone is called a “rough mason.”’ Moxon, the
contemporary of \Vren, in his Mec/zanick Exerczkes, distinguished
between the white mason who hewed stone, and the red mason

1 ‘Influence of Materials on Design in \Voodwork’ in The Art: Conntctca’ wit/z
Building, p. 70.

2
p. 24!.
3 “’right-W'ulcker, Vocabularics, 5.72. Cementarius and its variants.

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