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x] WALLS 155

durable and weatherproof when plastered externally—as they
usually are—with a kind of chalk marl mixed with straw.

About the time of Waterloo (the year 1815) ‘an eccentric
character" required a Suffolk bricklayer to build the walls of a
barn of sun-dried bricks of clay and chopped straw, of a size of
2 ft. long, I ft. wide, and 9 in. thick. The eccentricity seems to have
been not in the kind of bricks, but in their size, as the bricklayer
found them very difficult to lift and lay. There is, therefore ample
evidence for a use of dried bricks in England, and the descent of
the Newcastle bricklayers, who use burnt bricks, from the catters,
who used dried bricks, indicates, apparently, that the dried bricks,
or ‘cats,’ or ‘lumps,’ were the earlier form. And the evidence from
the Norfolk cottages mentioned above, seems to show that the sun-
dried bricks were a development from the walls of mud or cob.

A prehistoric form of earthen or stone wall in which the
materials were compacted by burning must be mentioned. The
vitrification was done by the use of brushwood, and by lime where
it could be obtained. An example near Bristol, is described in the
A ntz'quary, 19112, and similarly constructed walls are also found in
Scotland.

A peculiarly Northern form of wall is that made of turves, of
which the most celebrated example is the Antonine wall, which
was carried by the Romans across Scotland from Forth to Clyde.
It is said that in it there may still be traced the dark lines caused
by the decay of the grass, or other vegetation of the sods.

Allied to this are the walls composed of a mixture of turves and
rough undressed stones, which latter might be laid in horizontal
rows alternately with thin beds of turf, forming what was known
as a ‘ spetchel’ wall in N orthumberland, and used for fences, or the
wall might be of turves and faced on both sides or externally only
with the stones, a form widespread in the Celtic parts of these
islands. As an instance the walls of the black houses or ‘clachans’
of Lewis were of turf, with dry stone facings, five or six, or even
seven feet thick. When it was wished to clean that part of the
house in which the cattle lived, which was every Spring, the wall
was pulled down and then built up again”. This kind of wall
was used for the houses in the Isle of Man, but few now remain.

1 Builder, v (1847), p. 364.

2 James Baker, A Neolithic Romano-British Settlement, pp. 287 et seq.
3 Sir Arthur Mitchell, Past in the Present, p. 51.

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