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x111] THATCHING 217

shown, of which one (Fig. 60), is a Great Russian house in the
Government of Kazan, with the thatch held down by overhung
poles. The other (Fig. 61) shows an Esthonian outbuilding, and
is an example of the expansion beyond Germany of the German
mode of thatching, with the ridge thatch secured by ‘ Dachreiter.’
At the top of the hipped end is a form of owl-hole (‘eine Art

At Herning in Denmark the roofs are formed of alternate layers
of heath and straw. Rhamm thought that heath thatch was a
middle point (‘Mittelglied’) in the transition from turf thatch to
straw thatch, but considered that it was a question as to whether


Fig. 61. An outbuilding of ‘block-house’ construction in Esthonia.
The thatch at the ridge is held down by crossed rods.

this transition was to the German type of straw thatch, or to a
more primitive kind with the loosely heaped straw held down by
poles, as in Russia.

It may be possible to group Continental thatch ethnologically
as Herr Rhamm did, for there is little change among the peasants
from generation to generation, and the answer of certain Slav
farmers to all suggestions of improvement is said to be ‘our fathers
have been so accustomed.’ In England, where there has always
probably been more freedom than elsewhere, and a consequent

1 These two illustrations are reproduced from Altslawirclze Wofimmg and Urzeillz'cfie

Bauernlzqfe by permission of the publishers, Messrs Vieweg and Sohn. The permission,
of course, was obtained before the war.

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