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246 DOORS [CH.

connection between the door and its frame, and is also the means
by which the door is rotated. In Flanders the writer has seen
a form intermediate between the harr and the usual bands and
hooks. The bands were of L-iron,'but instead of swinging on
a hook, there was a pivot forged to them which serVed as a

Of the various forms of hinge, those now known as bands and
hooks were the most usual in the past. At the Romano-British
village of Woodcuts Common, General Pitt-Rivers found the iron
hooks for door-bands: they were used during the period of Roman
wealth and civilisation, and after then, iron was hardly used as a
material for the door fastenings of ordinary buildings until the
sixteenth century. In Sweden the use of ‘wooden hooks of natural
growth’ in place of hinges continued to a much later timel.
According to John Middleton, in the year 1798, in some places in
Middlesex ‘the stealing of gate hooks and iron fastenings is so
common, as to compel the farmer to both hang and fasten his gates
with wood, which is easily done, and equally secure with ironz.’
Examples of wooden hinges in buildings are still in existence on
the Continent of Europe, but the writer does not know of any that
have survived in England.

The variety of the names possessed by bands and hooks is
evidence for their widespread use in the past. In Kent, Surrey and
Sussex they are known as ‘ hook and ride,’ for which 1522 is the
earliest date recorded in the Oxford Dictionary. In Lancashire,
‘band and gudgeon ’ is used, and the word gudgeon occurs in the
Nottingham Corporation Records, for the year 1496, when one was
bought for the Town Hall door. The London term is ‘ hook and
band’ and for this reason it has become the standard term in use
in building construction. In Yorkshire and the North of England
the hooks are known as ‘crooks,’ and in the Dar/tam House/told
Book“, for the year 15 30—1, three pence a pair is entered for six
pairs of ‘duyr bands’ with ‘croykks.’ In the Cat/zolicon Angli-
cum, ‘ A cruke of a door’ is translated by ‘ gumphus.’ In the
year 1329, ‘two vertinell with two gumphis’ were bonght for the
palace at Westminster, and in the year 1405—6, the churchwardens

1 Alex. Beazeley, ‘Notes on Domestic Buildings in Southern Sweden’ in T ran:-
actiom of t/ze Royal Institute of British Architects, 1882-3, pp. I 17—128.

2 General View oft/26 Agriculture of Aliddlesex, p. 137.

3 Published by the Surtees Society, p. 73.

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