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252 WINDOWS AND CHIMNEYS fen.

of round holes and of round-arched openings, in stonework, under
one containing arch, and from such a combination of the two early
forms there sprang a development which culminated in the
splendid window tracery of the Middle Ages. Such great windows
as those of the choir of Gloucester Cathedral are the direct de-
scendants of tiny windows like those of Deerhurst ‘Chapel’ and
Jarrow Church, by way of ‘plate’ tracery, which is obviously of
wooden origin.

 

at _ _ -» .
q“. T.- , L: w": . ‘

Fig. 70. Chancel wall of Jarrow Church, Durham. To
the right is a pre-Conquest or ‘Saxon’ window
filled with a stone pierced with a small round hole.
This is the ‘eag-thyrl ’ (lit. eye-hole) which served
as a window at that period.

In the course of time, with cultural progress, the window
opening was gradually made larger: it was then wasteful to cut
such a frame as that at Deerhurst out of a slab, and the window
frame was made of separate pieces of wood framed together. The
earliest wooden frames of the kind, known to the writer, are of the
thirteenth century at Lincoln Cathedral. Here again, we may
apply the rule that new constructions first appear in the most
important buildings, and conclude that if wooden window frames

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