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254 WINDOWS AND CHIMNEYS {Jikfi

The shutterS'were not always hung at their sides. The wooden
shutters most frequently represented in the illuminations of the
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries were attached to‘the window
head outside and pushed up and kept raised by a prop “of wood or
iron‘. According to Mr G. T. Clark the embrasures of the castles
of Alnwick and Conisborough contained hanging shutters which
were fixed like a modern roller towel”, and passages in the sagas
seem to indicate that doors were hung in the same manner.
A theory has been advanced that certain perforations in the
projecting lintel of a church built of stones put together without
mortar at Kilmalkedar, were for the fastening of a door hung
in this manner3 : but it has already been suggested that these were
holes for ‘harrs.’ The present-day descendants of the shutters
hung at the top are to be found in old cutlers’ workshops ‘in
Sheffield, of which the window openings are unglazed, and“ closed
by wooden shutters when not in use. Sometimes these are fixed
inside the building, and hung at the top, in which case it is
necessary to lift them when light is required and to secure them by
a hook from the ceiling: more usually they are fixed outside, hung
at the bottom, and lowered when light is wanted in the workshop.

The accounts of the churchwardens‘of St Michael’s, Bath, are
very perfect and commence in the year 1349‘. The parish, as
stated in a former chapter, possessed house property, and for
two hundred years the churchwardens’ accounts contain numerous
references to doors and windows: the accounts show that ‘both
were the work of the carpenter, both were made of wood, and
both were fastened with ‘twystes and hokes.’ We find that
glazing was done to the windows of the church, but not to the
windows of the houses, and in the financial year 1533—6 the
churchwardens paid eight pence for one hundred laths to make a
window for the church tower, but there is no entry for laths for
the windows of the houses: it may be supposed, therefore, that
the ‘windows’ of the houses were simply wooden doors, or as we
should now call them, shutters.

1 Domestic Architecture in England from the C onqnert to the end of the Thirteenth
Century, p. 82.

2 Mediaeoal .Military Architecture in England, I, pp. 181 and 446.

3 Dr Joseph Anderson in Scotland in Early Christian Times, I, pp. 107-8.

4 These accounts have already been referred to so often, that it is hardly necessary to
say that they were printed by the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History
Society in its Proceedings, [877-80.

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