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262 WINDOWS AND CHIMNEYS [CH.

contrivance he said he had out of England, by a small model
brought on purpose from thence: there being nothing of this poise
in France before 1.’ In this country the use of sash windows became
general in buildings of the better sort, in the reign of the Dutch
King, William III, and in the year 1688, the London Gazette
contained an advertisement which offered ‘ glasses for sash
windows’ for sale. Their introduction into the provinces was
gradual. Tong Hall, built in the year I 702, is an early instance of
their use in Yorkshire, and Darnall Hall, near Sheffield, built in the
year I 723, has sash windows, single hung, with very thick bars to
the sashes, but otherwise fully developed. A writer in Notes and
Queries, said that the first sash windows in the Swalfield district
of Oxfordshire, were fixed in a house at Sileford-Gower, in the
year 1728“; and according to another writer in the same journal,
it was not until a generation later, that the first sash windows were
used at Wymondham, in Norfolk.

Until the end of the eighteenth century, the sash-frames were
fixed in openings without rebates. Previous to a statute of Queen
Anne’s reign, the windows were fixed flush with the outside face of
the wall, or only set back about two inches. The statute enacted
that in London, after I June, 1709, ‘no door-frame or window-
frame of wood to be fixed in any house or building, within the
cities of London, etc., shall be set nearer to the outside face of the
wall than four inches‘.’ It continued in use in London until quite
recently. This law, in which we may perhaps see the result of
some observation during the Great Fire of London, did not affect
country districts, where such frames continued to be set flush with
the face of the wall until the adoption of the Model Bye-Laws.

In very early sashes, the bars were not mitred, but made with
a mason’s joint, bringing about square blocks at the corners‘.
In such of these early examples as remain unaltered the bars are
very thick as the joiner was still under the influence of the old
mullions. The bars were made thinner about the end of the
eighteenth century, and, still later, they were made unpleasantly
thin. Probably this was done for several reasons: there was the
desire for ‘ prospects’ in the age of romanticism: people wished to
look out of their windows, as well as to have their rooms well
lighted, and it was found also that the thick bars added to the

1 Dictionary of the A rc/zitectural Publication Society, 3.7). Sash.
2 3rd Series, V11, p. 509.

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