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xw] NEW MATERIALS AND CONCLUSION 279

used in England almost exclusively before the abolition of the
excise duty.’ It is greenish in colour, not regular in appearance,
and wavy in surface. Crown glass was blown into the shape of a
flattened sphere, and spun into a flattened circular plate, called a
‘table,’ of which twenty-four formed a ‘ crate.’ A lump was left in
the sheet where the glass had been attached to the pipe: this is
the ‘ bullion,’ ‘bull’s eye,’ or ‘bottle end,’ which is still common in
the windows of old cottages, where the cheapest kind of glass was
used. Although the bottle ends are the cheapest and most inferior
part of the sheet, they became fashionable in the so-called Queen
Anne revival, and were bought from old cottages for re-use in good
modern houses.

The glass making industry was sufficiently prosperous in 1746
to tempt the government to impose an excise duty, which is said
to have been so onerous that it is a matter for wonder that the
manufacture survivedl. This continued for nearly ninety years,
and on its repeal the glass industry greatly increased; crown
glass was superseded by sheet glass, which is technically, if not
aesthetically, superior to crown glass.

Plate glass is the most technically excellent kind of glass for
building use, and is of French origin. According to the Dictionary
of the Architectural Publication Society the first plate glass works
in England were established in I 773 at Ravenhead, near Prescot,
Lancashire, by the ‘ Governor and Company of British Plate Glass
Makers,’ under a charter”.

Coloured glass, whether stained or painted, was never used in
such ordinary buildings as are described in this book. It was
usually arranged in a pictorial manner, great interest in so-called

1 Encyclopaedia Britannica, nth edition, XII, p. 104.

2 Dictionary of the Architectural Publication Society, 3.2/72. Glass and Plate glass.
According to Robert Brown (Domestic Architecture, p. 222), in England ‘the first
plate glass was made in 1673, at Lambeth, and its manufacture was introduced by
the Duke of Buckingham, who, for that purpose, brought over several Venetian work-
man.’ The Houghton letters of the end of the seventeenth century state that plate glass
was manufactured at two placesin this country. But the names of the kinds of glass have '
varied, as have the kinds themselves, and plate glass is not mentioned by that name in a
‘ Builder’s Dictionary,’ in an anonymous Rudiments of Architecture, of which the 3rd
edition was published at Dundee in 1799. It says of glass ‘there are many sorts; as
crown glass, French or Normandy glass, German glass, Newcastle glass, Bristol glass,
looking glass, and jealous glass; which last is of that nature that it cannot be seen
thro’, yet it admits of the light thro’ it.’ This ‘ Dictionary’ was copied from that of
Hoppus in his 5th edition (1755) of Salmon’s ‘ Palladio Londinensis,’ which in its
turn had been copied from earlier dictionaries, such as those of Neve and Moxon.

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