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the long reign of Aurungzebe, the state, notwithstanding all
that the vigour and policy of the prince could effect, was
hastening to dissolution. After his death, which took place in
the year 1707, the ruin was fearfully rapid. Violent shocks
from without co-operated with an incurable decay which was
fast proceeding within; and in a few years the empire had
undergone utter decomposition.

The history of the successors of Theodosius bears no small
analogy to that of the successors of Aurungzebe. But perhaps
the fall of the Carlovingians furnishes the nearest parallel to
the fall of the Moguls. Charlemagne was scarcely interred
when the imbecility and the disputes of his descendants began
to bring contempt on themselves and destruction on their
subjects. The wide dominion of the Franks was severed into
a thousand pieces. Nothing more than a nominal dignity was
left to the abject heirs of an illustrious name, Charles the Bald,
and Charles the Fat, and Charles the Simple. Fierce invaders,
differing from each other in race, language, and religion,
flocked, as if "by concert, from the farthest corners of the earth,
to plunder provinces which the government could no longer
defend. The pirates of the Northern Sea extended their
ravages from the Elbe to the Pyrenees, and at length fixed
their seat in the rich valley of the Seine. The Hungarian, in
whom the trembling monks fancied that they recognised the
Gog or Magog of prophecy, carried back the plunder of the
cities of Lombardy to the depths of the Pannonian forests.
The Saracen ruled in Sicily, desolated the fertile plains of
Campania, and spread terror even to the walls of Rome. In
the midst of these sufferings, a great internal change passed
upon the empire. The corruption of death began to ferment
into new forms of life. While the great body, as a. whole, was
torpid and passive, every separate member began to feel with
a sense, and to move with an energy all its own. Just here,
in the most barren and dreary tract of European history, all

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