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Pronunciation of vowels. 5

word is not pronounced after futile}; (§ 7), except in
.5 (dab), ‘ten’, and in cases in which the fatheh is used
by contraction instead of alt], as 41, mail for .Li, mdh,
‘the moon’; «:3 shah for ob, shah, ‘a king’. Nor is the
. pronounced in K, kih, ‘who’, ‘that’, 47 chih, ‘what’,
4... sih, ‘three’, 4: bih, ‘to’, (though it is in 4L: bih, ‘good’).
Z51, zé, zad, £5. (3 3 ‘54 B) have all alike in Persian
the sound of 2. Re ,) is pronounced more decidedly
than in English, but less so than in French. Such a
word as $33 (faqfr), for example, must not be pro-
nounced faqiab, as Englishmen have a tendency to
pronounce such words. Ghain and Qdf and ,3) are
gutturals and resemble hard 9 and 1: respectively, but
are formed far back in the mouth by a movement of

the mmla and throat. Great care should be taken not
to confound them with the ordinary g and k, which
are 3 and J in Persian. The latter two letters are
seldom distinguished from one another in Persian
printing, the second stroke of the being usually
omitted, but in pronunciation they are carefully
distinguished.
II. Vowels.

§ 7. In all languages there are three original
short vowel sounds”, d, i, a, which when lengthened
become a, i, a as heard in Italian. In Persian the
three short vowels are represented by the signs fdtlzeh
(—’), kdsrek (~,—), and gamnwh (—’) respectively, and
these are shortened forms of the weak letters \, 5
and ,. The long sounds of the same three vowels are
denoted by writing after each short vowel its corre-
sponding weak letter, as wlS, ddsht, ‘he had’, .2ij
’flst, ‘he is’, a“: bist, ‘twenty’. The signs for the short

vowels are hardly ever actually inserted in Persian,
except when absolutely necessary to distinguish between
words that might otherwise be confounded with one
another, as ,6 muhr, ‘a seal’, ,9; mihr, ‘kindness’. Even

in such instances their insertion is optional, as the

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