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Pronunciation of vowels. 7

now, however, nearly cibsolete, except in dib fa
fault’, Shaith‘n, ‘Satan’ (3%), and a few other words,
mostly Arabic. '

§ 11. The subjoined diagram shews all the

a Simple vowels: a, 1, ii: —’-, ,—, ——’—.
' Lengthened vowels: in, i, ii: |—L, (5,—, ,—-’—.
A Diphthongs, simple vowels combined: ai,
i ‘1 au: 5/, ,—’.-.

vowels and diphthongs recognised in Persian. The
so-called "mth or ‘unknown’ sounds of J and 5 (i. at)
and e respectively) are entirely obsolete, except that
in most places the 115w in the two words ,3 (two) and
j (thou) is pronounced 'long 0. The sound of e as in
. gét, met, is heard in certain Persian words, but it has
no proper sign to represent it and is therefore in
some instances denoted by fdtlzeh and in others by
loafer-eh, as will be explained under those signs.

§. 12. The vowel ftitlzeh occurs far more frequently
in Persian than does any other vowel, it is therefore.
of especial importance that the student should pro-
nounce it aright. It has been found expedient to
represent fa'tlzeh in transcription by (2, because when
the. sound is lengthened it becomes a, but the fdtlzeh
has never exactly the sound of the English short a in
bat. It approaches this sound, however, in the following,
cases: — (1) When followed by C, ., or t, as in the
first syllable of .124. A'Iamad, Jul, a‘ma‘l, or the last
syllable of {if bdndah. (In Isfahan the last fdtlaeh in
words ending in .—’ is thus pronounced, but in Shiraz
the fatlzeh in such cases is pronounced é, hence in this
book we shall write such words bdndeh, etc.). (2) When
the syllable containing the fatlzeh is open (5. e. does not
end in a consonant), as 1Q; md-l'i-keh, ‘a queen’. (3) In
a few words when followed by two consonants, as in
3:3, 3 1:, Rasht, Y azd, especially when the latter of
the two is r; as gabr (an impolite word denoting
‘a Zoroastrian’), qabr, ‘a grave’, sabr, ‘patience’.

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