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Accent. 1 1

§ 25. The reason why so many 3 and e sounds
occur in Persian is that Arabic words introduced into
the language have to be written as in Arabic. In the
latter tongue the sounds of db, w. up and again those
of 3, 3, do and B are quite distinct from one another,
as are those of C and ., of \and 8'. But these distinc-
tions are not observed in Persian. There is also a

great difference between the Arabic and the Persian
sound of (ghain).

§ 26. The Arabic letters were originally 22 in number,
and were arranged in the same order as in Hebrew, Syriac and
Aramaean, i. e. in the order shewn in the following; collection
of unmeaning words, and from this order their numerical value
is taken. This arran ement is called Abiad, from the first
word of the series. t will be seen that the Arabic letters
added later are arranged at the end. The numerical value is
attached to each letter.

WQ;L£J_§H4§ ’_ ’&;/,/r I ,jfigfli
gillll llll lillllllllllll
§§§§§§ §§§§8833sseeewm~w

§ 27. The Arabic numerals now used in Persian are:

"Yf'wocVAavxuvmun
01234567891010018991900

The apparent strangeness ot the fact that these numbers
seem to be written and read not from right to left but from
left to right is due to the circumstance that in Arabic, from
which the Persians have borrowed this system of notation, the
smaller number is read as well as written first: thus an Arab
would read 1899, ‘nine and ninety and eight hundred and one
thousand’. This, however, a Persian does not do. The Sig/liq
notation is given in Appendix C to this Grammar.

No signs to represent punctuation are used in Persian,
except that sometimes a lakht (—) is employed to denote a
pause, and the sign (:1) above the first word of a new sen-
tence. But these are often omitted.

Accent.

§ 28. The Accent in Persian presents no diffi-
culty, though the following rules may be found use-
ful. As already mentioned, the accent does not lengthen
a short vowel if it falls thereon.

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