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Use of -r5 0)) and i (Ly). 25

preserves the good’: (5) is a noun followed by -Z' and
(see § 42); as, mdrdi-ra kih gurikht girl'ftim, ‘We
seized the man who fled’: (6) is a Personal Pronoun
or its equivalent; as, in-ra bZ-shinau, ‘hear this’. lei-rd
dfdi. ‘whom didst thou see?’ In all such instances the
object is defined, and in all of them the -rd is there-
fore required in the modern language. (In the
Classical language it is sometimes omitted when the
direct object is inanimate though definite, but this is
not now correct.)

Even when the direct object of the verb has no-
thing to make it definite but requires something to
distinguish it from the subject, -rd may be appended
to the object, especially if (1) the object be a person,
or (2) consist of a considerable number of words: as,
(1) Padsha‘h gada'i-rd did, ‘The king saw a beggar’;
(2) Dar shdhr ehdi va q'dkveh va sizer va qand i'a nan-rd
kharidim, ‘In the city we bought tea and cofi’ee and
sugar and loaf-sugar and bread’.

Note that the -ra comes at the very end of the
whole collection of words that go to make up the
logical object in such a sentence as that last given.
The same rule holds if the logical object consists of
a noun followed by a number of adjectives or by
another noun in apposition: as, an ma’rd i pir i buldnd-
qddd i'lc‘ighir-ra didam, ‘I saw that tall, thin old man’:
Sharirc‘in Suqra‘t i failasz'if-rd hashtand, ‘Wicked men
slew Socrates the philos0pher’.

When the direct object includes the word chih,
‘what’, and denotes something inanimate, the ~cm is rarely
used; as, chili kita’b giiftid, ‘which book did you say?’

Ra must never be used (a) when the noun is
governed by a preposition (as it would be used. were
it the termination of the objective case, which. it is
not, vide § 30): or (b) with any word that is not the
direct object (or part of the direct object) of a verb:
unless the re? is used in the sense of to, or, especially
in letters, with the meaning of at, on ; as an r-iiz -rd,
‘on that day’.

§ 42. The affix-2' in Persian is used, especially in
writing, to express the sense of the English indefinite

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