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38 Lesson 5.

One seventh haft yak. sub‘.

One eighth Lilia—u hasht yak. sumn.
One ninth. «$12.33 nuh yak. tus‘. "'
One tenth. 6.1:.5 dah yak. ‘ushr. )3;

The word nim is not used in counting, nigf having
now taken its place. Although we may say and write
sih yak (both Persian words) for ‘One third’, yet to
express ‘two thirds’. it is not permitted to say ‘dé sih
yak’; one must say do The same applies to the
other fi'actions: e. g. ‘five eighths’, panj §umn; ‘three
fourths’, sih' rub‘; ‘seven tenths’, hafl ‘ushr.

§ 53. Rule. After all purely Persian Cardinals the
noun is put in the singular (never in the plural as in
English): e. g., ‘two horses’, d6 asb; ‘a thousand men’,
haza‘r mard.

If these words are the subject in a sentence, the
verb is sometimes in the singular, sometimes in the
plural: as, mardi rd d5 pisar b‘lld, ‘to a certain man
there were (was) two sons’ (‘a certain man had two
sons’): in sad gi‘isfand gurikhtand, those hundred sheep
ran away’. As a general rule the plural verb in such
instances is used with words denoting persons: it is
often used with words denoting animals, but it is not
correctly used regarding inanimate things, (though
this usage is gradually finding its way into the modern
language).

§ 54. In conversation the word na’far (‘person’) is
usually inserted between the numeral and a word
denoting persons: as, shish mfar sava'r, ‘six horsemen’.
deh or ta is similarly, used with all other words; as
panj ta sib, ‘five apples’; chaha‘r ta asb, ‘four horses’;
dah ddneh finja‘n, ‘ten cups’. In writing, ta is rarely used
in such constructions, but the other words are. In
more precise written style other expressions are used,
somewhat like our English ‘five head of cattle’: as:

Panj zinjir fil, ‘five elephants’: (zinjir = ‘chain’).

d6 drrddeh (‘arra‘beh) tab, ‘two guns’: (drrddeh, drrc‘i-
beh — ‘a waggon’).

sih ra’s asb, ‘three horses’: (ra’s = ‘head’).

duh d‘dad sandali, ‘ten chairs’: (d‘dad = ‘number’).

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