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Prepositions, conjunctions, interj ections. 53

Eighth Lesson.

Prepositions, simple and compound:
Conjunctions, Interjections.

§ 67. The simple Prepositions now in use in Per-
sian are very few, the only ones of Persian origin
now used being:

az, from, out of : than (with comparatives).

bi, ba (when united with the following word: when
separate, bih, bah), to, for, at; in, with (means).

bd, with, along with (now used of manner and in-

bar, on, upon.

bi, devoid of, without (sine).

dar, in. into, at; on (of time).

-i, of (the fad/eh, which in many instances is now
a simple preposition).

rd, up to, as far as.

01" Arabic origin and less commonly used are:

7316', up to, to (e. g. of verses: a2 c‘iyeh-y—i sh-Zéhum
{16' dyeh-y-i h‘ifdahum, ‘from the sixth to the seventeenth

[zdttd’, as far as (often used with in kih, as (with?
in kih a ghagalma'lc shud, ‘to such an extent that he
grew angry’.)

fi, = per as used in English (as, shd/car, hz'jdeh man
fi hasht qarzin: ‘sugar, eighteen maunds at eight krans
per maund’.)

bile, without (as, bilii shch, ‘without doubt’).

§ 68. The older form of bi is ba, which is still
used in Shire-£2 and in some other places. When followed
by 27, an, in, isha'n, a still older form of the words may
be used, bad- or bid-, after which the initial alif of
the above four words is omitted: as bidu (3.x), bidd'n
(Olav), bidfn (33.), bidishzin (akin). This form of the
preposition is rather more used in writing than in

§ 69. In modern conversation dar is seldom heard,
it? (more prOperly m-y-i) being often used instead, as
it? sandz‘iq, ‘in the box’ (vide § 77). Bar is rarely used
alone, (bar) riZ-y-z' generally taking its place: even in


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