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76 Lesson 11.

(b) Strengthened Present Snbjnnctlve.
Singular. Plural.
1at P. bi-davam(r,’.ft)1may, bt-davi'm (r: we may run.
let me, run? ’ ’
2“ P. bl-davi (63.11), thou bl-david (a: you may run.
mayest Hm. ’ ’
3‘“d P. bi-davad (.3331), he M-davand (.6th they may
may, let him, run. run. ’

The meaning is not altered by the insertion of
this particle, the use of which really depends upon
the taste of the writer. In speaking the simpler forms
are of comparatively rare occurrence except sometimes
with Compound or Prepositional Verbs (vide §§ 109,
124). When, similarly, the words nah, ‘not’, mah.
(‘not’, used only with the Imperative) are prefixed
to these tenses, the prefix bi must not be used. In
the older style the Strengthened Present Subjunctive
had a future sense. (When, however, a person says
inn? bi-kunam .9, although it may in English be rendered
‘Shall I do this?’ yet to the Persian mind the meaning
is ‘May I do this ‘9’) When the root of the verb begins
with alif, the ‘5 of the older form vi of the prefix is
retained: as bi-y-uflad,‘ (Jag), ‘he may fall’, The 3/ is
also inserted when na or ’ma are prefixed to such
verbs; as na’ydmfizad (43);?) ‘let him not learn’.'

§ 92. The original termination of the Infinitive
was -tan, and this is still preserved in most of the
older verbs in the language. But as only four of
the consonants, — t, .3, w. J- — are permitted by
euphony immediately to precede -tan without the inter-

osition of a vowel, and as many verbal Roots end
1n other consonants than these four, of the following
two Rules one must be adopted to form the Infinitive: —

1. Modify the final consonant of the root so that
it may become one of the above four: — E. g.

‘ As the initial Alif in such verbs is omitted, unless it
has the madd over it (i. e. is long a), when the y is inserted,
the student may find it diificult to understand such forms
unless he is careful. '

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