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86 Lesson 12.

Future Indicative Active 01 Davida», ‘to run’.

Singular. Plural.
1"t P.: khpc‘z’ham david khyh‘hi'm david (.pafinl
2nd R: khpa‘hi david Hag:th david (413an
3rd 13.: Ichde davi'd mama davi'd (.tpxalfi).

‘I shall run, thou wilt run’, etc.

This tense is now used in speech (except in Ka-
shfin) only when a very decided future or a purpose is
denoted, — in other words in ordinary conversation it
denotes rather ‘I will run’ than ‘I shall run’. Other-
wise the Present Indicative (§ 89, c) of the principal
verb is employed in a future sense. More rarely the
Future hasdthe sense of must, shouhi, etc., as in the
sentence, Ajab mist kih javc'ini' khiydla‘t i bumirg khm’ihad
namfid, ‘It is not strange that a youth should con-
ceive great projects’.

§ 101. The Gerundive is formed by adding-i to
the Infinitive, as:

Davidani («J-.233), about to run, that should run.
It is now rarely used in writing though not uncom-
mon in speech. In the case of Transitive Verbs the
Gerundive has generally a Passive sense; as, kushtani,
‘about to be killed, that ought to be killed’; d’zdani,
‘that may be seen, that should be seen, that is fit to
be seen, visible’. Like all other adjectives the Gerun-
dive requires no? and not Mk (4:) to be prefixed
to formthe negative; as na'didani', ‘that cannot be seen,
invisible, that is not fit to be seen’ (§ 206, g). The
Gerundive may (like other Adjectives) be used as a
Substantive: as, khgnirdani (51;, ‘that which may
be eaten, food’.

§ 102. The Perfect Subjunctive is formed by
adding the Present Subjunctive of Bz'idan (§ 95, b) to
the Past Participle of the principal Verb.

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