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Passive Voice of the Verb: Order of Words in a Sentence. 95

example the verb kfishtan (root hush), ‘to kill’. It must
be remembered that its Past Participle means, ‘having
killed’, but also ‘having been killed’ (§ 86, 0).

§ 111. Keishtan ), to kill: Past Participle,
hushteh.

Passive Voice.
A. Indicative Mood.
(a) Present Tense.

Singular. Plural.

1st P.: kaishteh mi—shavam hashteh ml-shavim («23’
(pi-r ‘35,) -((_r=:"

2nd P.: W "ti-shat)? Mshteh mf-shavi'd (42'?
(«53-19 Cir) (413-19

3rd P.: kdshteh ml-shavad kushteb mf-shavand («23’
' .(a ’11.. 4:3?) .(A: ’41:.

‘I am being killed, thou art being killed’, etc.
(cf. § 99, j).

The literal meaning of this tense is, ‘I am be-
coming having been killed’, or ‘I become killed’, etc.

(b) Imperfect Tense.

Singular. Plural.
1"t P.: laishteh mi—shu’dam hushteh mi—shzidi'm («23’
«.45..» air) «re...
2“ P.: kzlshteh mi-shud-i lazishteh mi-shzidid (423’
.(5439 4::3’) .(.._
3rd P.: kzishteh mi- slnid hushteh mi-shddand (J
.(J, 423’) .(4: ,

‘I was being killed’, etc. (of. § 99, b).

Literally, "I was becoming having been killed’,
or ‘I was becoming killed’. Like the Imperfect Indic.
Act. (§ 85, b) this tense is also used with the sense
of the Conditional, ‘(If) I were to be killed’, ‘Should
I be killed’, etc.

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