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R. gaz-‘z‘dan, gaz, to bite.

gusistan gzisz'l, to break
gusiilchtan : (trans., e. g. a
gusilidan thread). (Vulg.

strengthened imperat. bis-
gul for bigusz'l).
gushddan gushiiy, to Open,
gushndan l loosen.

ggigégn { yard, to become.

gziftan, gay, to say, speak.
gumtishtan, gumc‘ir, to appoint.
[gdmlan] /
gandfdan l
R. Mii'ndan, man, to remain.
[manistan], min, to resemble.

gand, to stink.

Lesson 13.

Nz'garistcm, mfgar, to look at.
[mishdstan] 3 nishein, to set, seat,
m'shfindtm 8 plant.
nisha’stan, m'shin, to sit down.
namiidan, namdy, to show.
navdkhtan, navziz, to sound (tr.
and intr.); to receive with
honour; to pet (a child).
(old mbtshtan
m'ha‘da'n, m'h, to put, lay down.
[nihtzftam m'hdft(?)], m'mfteh, to
hide (trans) .
Htshtan g 7311, to move (Wana)
hilfdan (old and vulgar).
Ydftan, ydb, to get, obtain.t

g maria, to write.

nnirdan, mz‘r, to die.

§ 116. As noticed above (§ 74), in the first syllable
of some verbs (e. g. namfi'dan, while a is used in some
places, dis heard in others, and u may still be found
elsewhere. We have in the above list ad0pted in each
case the most usual pronunciation (the short vowel
hardly ever being written in Persian).

§ 117. There is (as will be noticed in the List
given above) a great tendency to form regular infi-
nitives in idan from the roots of irregular verbs. In
some cases, however, both the regular and the irregular
forms are now obsolete, as shewn above. New verbs
are often formed by compounding the present or past
participle, or sometimes the shortened infinitive, with
auxiliaries. Thus for the tenses formed from the ob-
solete root of giri'stan, to weep, we find giriyfin mf-
shavad cfc. substituted: for dvra'stan, arl‘Zstch kdrdan .° for
sistan, gist 74amz‘idan, etc.
_ § 11.8. To the advanced Student the following
rules for the formation of the Infinitive from the Root-
of Irregular Verbs may be useful.

The old termination of the Infinitive in Persian
( Pahlavi', Dari) was Jan (of. Sanskrit -z‘um, Latin Supine
in -tum): -dan has arisen from this by softening the t
after a vowel or a liquid letter, and can therefore

1 A very few Irregular Verbs the sense of which is some-
what obscene have been omitted from the above list.


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