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The Causative Verb: Compound and Prepositional Verbs. 1 l l

the auxiliaries must not be interchanged. The student
in his reading should pay especial attention to this

A very few Persian verbs have been formed from Arabic
nouns by simply adding the infinitive ending -f-dan: the chief
of these are galab-f-dan, ‘to demand’; fahm-f-dan, ‘to understand’;
raqgfdan, ‘to dance’; bal‘fdan, ‘to swallow’.

§ 126. Propositional Verbs (Verbs compounded with
prepositions) have been dealt with in § 109 above.
Some verbs undergo more or less change of meaning
when united to prepositions: e. 9.:

Dar dvcirdan, to bring out ((12); to bring in (bi).

dar kasi’hdan, to draw out (a2).

dar dvikhtan, to grapple with.

m'dr‘i dar diz'dan, to utter (give out) a cry.

dar md‘ndan to be destitute, weary.

m gugdrdan (guga'shtan) to leave behind.

ed istc‘idan, to stop, come to a stand: to stand up.

m7 da‘shtan, to hold back: to station.

cd (or bdz) chrdan, to open.

bdz Zimadan, to come back.

bdz ista‘dun, to desist from (az).

bar gdshtan (gardidan), to return, turn back.

dar guqcishfan, to pass away (az); to pass over
(az, bar).

dar émadan, to come in (bi); to come out (a3).

chinc‘in rd namz‘idan, to point out as such.

fun—Z bcirdcm, to swallow up: to force down (as a
needle into cloth).

fara‘ go'fiftan, to acquire, learn.

bar da‘shtan, to carry off.

bar khgnirdan, to meet with (-cm, or bi—).'

dar ufta‘dan, to occur: to fall in with (bi-).

dar ya'ftan, to find out, discover.

var2 shika’stan, to become bankrupt.

pish gififtan, to assume, take upon oneself (the
government, etc.).

' Bar khmirdan (as) also means ‘to profit by’: as, az ta‘lim
i ii bar khgnirdam, ‘I profited by his instruction’. But here bar
is a noun meaning ‘fruit’.

1 Var is another (popular) form of bar: so pe0ple often
say var ddshtan for bar ddshtan.

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