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118 Lesson 13.

If the necessity or obligation is general and not
particular, the shortened form of the Infinitive follows
these verbs instead of their requiring the Present
Subjunctive: as, Ahka'm i ildhi-ra‘ mf-bdyad bijzi dud-rd,
‘One must carry out the Divine commandments’. This
distinction is rigorously observed in the modern language
in both writing and speech, though in the older language
the use of the Subjunctive in such constructions (after
bc‘z‘yad, slm‘yad etc.) was not recognised. With the two
modern usages and their difference of meaning compare
the French, “1] faut que j’aille” and “I1 faut aller”.

§ 132. Shag/{stun is rarely used in conversation,
except shc‘iyad in the sense of ‘perhaps’ and shdyistch
as an adjective, ‘suitable, befitting, worthy’.

§ 133. Tavdn-i'stan (tau—in), ‘to be able’, is followed
by the (1) Present Subjunctive or (2) by the shortened
Infinitive according to the same rule and with the
same distinction of meaning. But when it is used im-
personally the -ad of the 3rd Person Singular is omitted.
The mi is used in the present Indicative of this verb
except in the instance last mentioned, where in the
older style it may be left out: as,

MFZ ndmi—tavgnim (in kc‘ir—ra bi—kunim, ‘We cannot
do that work’. An ka'r-rd 'nd(mi-)tavan chrd, ‘It is im-
possible to do that work’.

§ 134. Where in English an Infinitive follows
another verb, in Persian the present Subjunctive
generally takes the place of the Infinitive, and kih (ex-
pressed or understood) precedes this Subjunctive, except
where purpose is implied, when its place is taken by
tr? (or more rarely by ta tin kih). But to imply pmpose the
Infinitive preceded by bardyi may be used. Examples:

‘He told him to read the book’: 17rd fiulcm Irard 1:27:
Ia-itr'z‘b-rd bi-khpdnad.

‘He went to look for his rifle’, Raft ta tufa’ng 2° khpzid—
m bitifiyad, or Bardyi justujz‘i kdrdan i tufa’ng i khgmd raft.

It will be noticed that the Infinitive is often (as
in this instance) used as a noun, like the English
gerund in -z°ng, and then takes an igfi'fch after it. So
also, Bi-sa’bab 2' tt—lb'idan i fiftiib, ‘because of the shining
of the sun’.

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