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170 Lesson 23.

(c) -andeh, formed from Verbs (§ 89, e), denotes
the Agent: as, .431 J's-l. (Afarindndeh), ‘the Creator’;
.Jis’ (kundndeh), ‘the doer’.

(d) -gar, denotes one working in or engaged in
something; as, J/(zaT (dhtngar), ‘one working in iron’
(61:57:), ‘a blacksmith’; f),- (zdrgar), ‘a goldsmith’ (zar,
‘gold’); Jfiar. (sauda'gar), ‘a trader’.

(e) -dr denotes (1) the agent: as, ,la} (khari—
dc‘z‘r), ‘purchaser’. '

(2) an action: as, flat) (dida‘r), ‘vision’ (of God).
(3) hence (concrete) a thing: as, 3b} (mur-
da‘r), ‘carrion’.

(f) flan denotes a receptacle: an“... (sham‘dc‘z‘n),
‘a candlestick’; (ii—nil"? (chirdghdiz‘n), ‘a lampstand’;
$4.13 (qalamda'n), ‘a pencase’.

(g) -z'stdn, -stc‘m, -bdr, -zdr, -sdr, -lakk, -s}um, denote
a place abounding in the thing named: aw (guli-
sta'n), ‘a rosegarden’; an,“ (Hindfistc‘z‘n), ‘India’; 3L...”
(ifiyba‘r), ‘a place abounding in streams’; Jl (gulziz‘r),
‘flowerplot’; )L/{a- (sangsa‘r), originally ‘a place abound-
ing in stones’ (now used with the verbs mmz‘idan or
siz'khtan to mean ‘to stone to death’); )1... «f (kfihsiz‘r),
‘a mountainous district’; 'CMC. (sanglc'z'kh), ‘stony ground’;
(gdlshan), ‘a fiowerbed’.

(h) -i forms abstract nouns and corresponds to
mess in English: (nfki), 5’ (92515175), ‘goodness’;
5.». (bddi), ‘Wickedness’; an.” (radshani), ‘brightness’,
‘light’; L512.” (raushana‘i), ‘light’ (from obsolete adjec-
tive ramham'z‘); 5WD (ddndi), ‘wisdom’. If added to a
word ending in .4 (originally -ak and then —ag, vide
§ 36), it changes the h to g; as fan, ‘service’, ‘wor-
ship’ (from “c... bdndeh).

(i) -z'sh (an older form of 4'), -dk, «I, «in, -eh, form
verbal nouns: as, waft...) (farmdz'sh), at.) (famén), ‘a
command’; J15)... (saza‘k), ‘a burning’; garmc‘zZ (LJf),

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