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Formation ot Persian Derivative Nouns, etc. 173

speak’, ‘speaking’ (now generally meaning ‘so to speak’,
‘as if’, ‘perhaps’).

§ 202. It will be noticed in the above examples
that in Persian these Persian terminations are often
appended as well to Arabic words as to Persian ones.
In some instances the termination «inch (§ 201, h) is
needed in order to form (from adjectives which can
be used in reference to persons only) other adjectives to
qualify words denoting things. For example, afmar‘z’m),
‘kind’, ‘gracious’, 3b Gifts), ‘helpless’, ‘humble’, are
used of persons; as, mard i karfm, shakhs i ‘a‘jis, ‘a kind
man’, ‘a humble person’; but 64(9ng (murdsiliz‘t é
karima'neh), ‘kind letters’, sukham'z‘n i ‘djiza‘neh, ‘humble
words’.

§ 203. All Adjectives may in Persian be used as
adverbs, just as in German. Besides this the lack of
proper adverbs is made up for in several ways:

(a) By using Arabic nouns (masc. or fem.) in the
Ace. Sing. (§ 153): as, (haqi'qatan), ‘truly’;
(fl‘hn) ‘actually’; .38! (al‘a‘n), JUJ (illu‘z‘l), ‘now’ (for
JUST“; fi’lbfil). '

(b) By employing Arabic nouns with Arabic
propositions: as, 1,5“ 6'. (fi’lfaur), ‘at once’, ‘instantly’;
Hflbmfi‘z), ‘in fact’.

(0) By using a noun with a Persian preposition:
as, $54 (bi-khw’bz‘), ‘well’: .kulu.‘ (bi ishtiba‘h), ‘unerringly’.

((1) By using two nouns together (united by
igc'z‘feh) with the omission of the preposition gover-
ning the first: as, )KfT h‘khi/r 5 hair), ‘finally’.

(e) By employing a Present or Past Participle
adverbially: as ax. (paivdsteh), ‘continually’; dumb:
(Main chain) ‘at a rhn’.

Adverbs of time and place (except I kai, ‘when?
and a few other old words), such as 5,1,: (dim? =
d‘igar 7:172), ‘yesterday’; 11.97 (Ziry’d), ‘there’; (Mai),
‘where?’, are 'so simply formed as to require no
explanation.

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