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194 Lesson 27.

Twenty-seventh Lesson.
Certain Persian Idioms.

§ 213. The Persian language is distinguished for
the very large number of idiomatic expressions of
which it makes use. In this respect it resembles English.
Many such idioms have already been introduced in
the exercises and Conversations as well as in Lesson
XXVI. We now proceed to mention a number of
others which are for the most part connected with
the peculiar use of certain verbs. ‘

§ 214. thurdan (Jaws), ‘to eat’ or ‘drink’, is
used to denote sufering, etc. Its use with a noun often
prevents the necessity of using the Passive Voice of
another verb. E. g. zdkhm khpzirdan (to eat a wound),
‘to be wounded’: takdn khgrdrdan (to eat a push), ‘to
be pushed’, ‘to receive a push’: gz‘il khgnirdan (to eat
deceit), ‘to be deceived’. Other idioms are: — zamin
khgnirdan, ‘to fall to the ground’, ‘to be knocked down’;
ghdm Ichgnirdan, ‘to grieve’; afsz‘is khgnirdan, ‘to regret’;
quam khpzirdan, ‘to take an oath’, ‘to swear’; an ch52
bi-ddrd '5 man nd-mi-khpzirad, ‘that thing is of no use
to me’; gulfi'leh bi-shika‘r khgmrd, ‘the bullet hit the
game’; bi-ka‘r 6 mi mi—Ichpurad, ‘it comes in useful for
him’; mzihr bdlé-y-i pa‘k shade}; khznzrdeh bid, ‘the seal
had been impressed on the part obliterated’.

§ 215. Didan, bin (Oi-.349), ‘to see’, is used in a
somewhat similar manner: as, ddrd didan, ‘to suffer
pain’; mdslalzat (salc‘ib) didan, ‘to deem advisable’;
tada'mk didan, ‘to make preparations’; sc‘z'n didan, ‘to
review (troops)’.

§ 216. Farmfi'dan (farma'y) (51.9%.): ’33), ‘to com-
mand’, is in courtesy used of any action, not onl of
a superior but of an equal, in place of ka'rdcm, namfidan,
etc. E. g., mulc‘ilzigehfarmz‘idan, ‘to peruse’; amr farmcidan,
‘to command’; bi—farma‘id, ‘say, speak; enter; sit down’,
etc.: iltzfc'z't bi-farmc'z'id (lugf bi-farma'id), ‘please’.

§ 217. Avdrdan, c‘ivar, fir (fi-M-Jufi), ‘to bring’,
is used in various phrases; e. g., (bi-) khd'tir (ydd) dva’r-
dan, ‘to recall to memory’, ‘call to mind’; bi—kar (bi-ja,

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