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THE CONSTITUTION OF NATURE. 29

But the attractions of the great mass of the earth’s crust
are already satisfied, and from them no further energy can
possibly be obtained. Ages ago the elementary constitu-
ents of our rocks clashed together and produced the motion
of heat, which was taken up by the ether and carried away
through stellar space. It is lost forever as far as we are
concerned. In those ages the hot conflict of carbon,
oxygen, and calcium, produced the chalk and limestone
hills Which are now cold; and from this carbon, oxygen,
and calcium, no further energy can be derived. And so it
is with almost all the other constituents of the earth’s
crust. They took their present form in obedience to mo-
lecular force; they turned their potential energy into dy-
namic, and gave it to the universe ages before man
appeared upon this planet. For him a residue of potential
energy remains, vast truly in relation to the life and wants
of an individual, but exceedingly minute in comparison
with the earth’s primitive store.

To sum up. The whole stock of energy or working-
power in the world consists of attractions, repulsions, and
motions. If the attractions and repulsions are so circum-
stanced as to be able to produce motion, they are sources
of working-power,but not otherwise. As stated a moment
ago, the attraction exerted between the earth and a body
at a distance from the earth’s surface is a source of working-
power; because the body can be moved by the attraction,
and in falling to the earth can perform work. When it
rests upon the earth’s surface it is not a source of power'or
energy, because it can fall no farther. But though it has
ceased to be a source of energy, the attraction of gravity still
acts as a force, which holds the earth and weight together.

The same remarks apply to attracting atoms and mole-
cules. As long as distance separates them, they can move
across it. in obedience to the attraction, and the motion
thus produced may, by proper appliances, be caused to

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