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he showers upon his exposed surfaces the spray of diluted
carbolic acid, which is particularly deadly to the germs,
and he surrounds the wound in the most careful manner
with antiseptic bandages. To those accustomed to-strict
experiment it is manifest that we have a strict experimenter
here—a man with a perfectly distinct object in View, which
he pursues with never-tiring patience and unwavering faith.
And the result, in his hOSpital practice, as described by him-
self, has been, that even in the midst of abominations too
shocking to be mentioned here, and in the neighborhood
of wards where death was rampant from pyaemia, erysipe-
las, and hospital gangrene, he was able to keep his patients
absolutely free from these terrible scourges. Let me here
recommend to your attention Professor ’Lister’s “ Intro-
ductory Lecture before the University of Edinburgh,” which
I have already quoted, his paper on “The Effect of the
Antiseptic System of Treatment on the Salubrity of a Sur-
gical Hospital; ” and the article in the British Mdz'cal
Journal, to which I have just referred.

If, instead of using carbolic-acid spray, he could sur-
round his wounds with properly-filtered air, the result
would, he contends, be the same. In a room where the
germs not only float but cling to clothes and walls, this
would be difficult if not impossible. But surgery is ac-
quainted with a class of wounds in which the blood is freely
mixed with air that has passed through the lungs, and it is a
most remarkable fact that such air does not produce putre-
faction. Professor Lister, as far as .I know, was the first ‘to
give a philos0phical interpretation of this fact, which he
decribes and comments upon thus:

I have explained to my own mind the remarkable fact that in simple
fracture of the ribs, if the lung be punctured by a fragment, the blood
efl‘used into the pleural cavity, though freely mixed With air, undergoes
no decomposition. The air is sometimes pumped into the pleural cavity
in such abundance that, making its way through the wound in the pleura

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