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316 FRAGMENTS OF SCIENCE.

the body epidemic disease. If this be so, then disease can
be warded off by carefully-prepared filters of cotton-wool.
I should be most willing to test their efficacy in my own
person. But apart from all doubtful applications, it is per-
fectly certain that various noxious trades in England may
be rendered harmless by the use of such filters. I have
had conclusive evidence of this from people engaged in
such trades. A form of respirator devised by Mr. Garrick,
a hotel proprietor in Glasgow, in which inhalation and ex-
halation occur through two different valves, the one per-
mitting the air to enter through the cotton-wool, and the
other permitting the exit of the air direct into the atmos-
phere, is Well adapted for this purpose. But other forms
might readily be devised.

Fireman’s Respirator.

Smoke is often the fireman’s greatest obstacle in his
efforts to save life ; I thought, therefore, of inventing a res-
pirator for the use of firemen. Schroeder was the first to
use cotton-wool as a filter. To catch the atmospheric
germs, M. Pouchet employed a film of adhesive glycerine
spread upon glass ; while Dr. Stenhouse turned charcoal to
important account in respirators. By a combination of all
three a respirator of peculiar efficacy is obtained. For the
smoke of dried leaves the cotton-wool alone was found an
adequate protection; but for the far more pungent smoke
of resinous deal it was found totally inadequate. At the
suggestion of a friend I moistened the wool with glycerine,
and found it a great improvement. It was the notion of
Pouchet in another form. Still about five minutes in dense
smoke was all that could be endured. I then associated
fragments of charcoal with the moistened cotton; the effect
was excellent.1 Armed with a reSpirator of this kind, one

1 MP9 Ladd, of Beak Street, makes these respirators.

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