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324 FRAGMENTS OF SCIENCE.

as possible, to appraise the respective shares which air and
water take in the great act of distribution. That both
cholera and typhoid fever are sometimes disseminated by
drinking-water has been amply proved. I have myself re-
lated many instances of the fact, and have in my notes the
record of many others still more striking. But that water
is the sole or even the chief ’vehicle of cholera and typhoid
is a notion which, if I may trust my own experience, facts
do not warrant.

“ Limiting myself, for the moment, to the case of typhoid,
I am in a position to state that all the worst and most wide-
spread outbreaks of that fever which I have ever witnessed,
have occurred among communities supplied by drinking»
water which was absolutely blameless. Two illustrations
will suffice.

“ I live in a town in which the divorce between sewage
and drinking-water has long been consummated. Bristol
is supplied with drinking-water which from its source in the
Mendips to the tap from which it is delivered under high
pressure to the consumer, flows through conduits out of all
reach of sewage contamination.

5‘ And yet typhoid fever has not only not ceased to exist
in Bristol, but about eight or ten years ago (before the
appointment of a health-officer), there occurred in the Parish
of St. James one of the worst outbreaks of this fever which
I have ever seen in the city. In the course of a circuit
which I took one morning with the late Dr. Pring (at that
time Poor Law Medical Officer) I saw within a compara-
tively small area more than eighty cases of the disease.

“ N ow, with the exception of a single household, all the
patients were drinking the Mendip water; the very same
water which, as far as fever is concerned, more than 150,000
of their fellow-citizens outside the infected area were drink-
ing with absolute impunity.

“ Some four or five years ago I was sent for to advise

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