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FARADAY. 341

The first volume of the “Life and Letters ” reveals to
us the youth who was to be father to the man. Skilful,
aspiring, resolute, he grew steadily in knowledge and in
power. Consciously or unconsciously, the relation of action
to reaction was ever present to Faraday’s mind. It had
been fostered by his discovery of magnetic rotations, and
it planted in him more daring ideas of a similar kind. Mag-
netism he knew could be evoked by electricity, and he
thought that electricity, in its turn, ought to be capable of
evolution by magnetism. On August 29, 1831, his experi-
ments on this subject began. He had been fortified by
previous trials, which, though failures, had begotten in-
stincts directing him toward the - truth. He, like every
strong worker, might at times miss the outward object, but
he always gained the inner light—education and expansion.
Of this Faraday’s life was a constant illustration. By N o-
vember he had discovered and colligated a multitude. of
the most wonderful and unexpected phenomena. He had
generated currents by currents; currents by magnets, per-
manent and transitory; and he afterward generated cur-
rents by the earth itself. Arago’s “ Magnetism of Rota-
tion,” which had for years offered itself as a challenge to
the best scientific intellects of EurOpe, now. fell into his
hands. It proved to be a beautiful but still special illustra-
tion of the great principle of magneto-electric induction.
Nothing equal to this, in the way of pure experimental in—
quiry, had previously been achieved.

Electricities from various sources were next examined,
and their differences and resemblances revealed. He thus
assured himself of their substantial identity. He then took
up conduction, and gave many striking illustrations of the
influence of fusion on conducting power. Renouncing pro-
fessional work, from which at this time he might have de-
rived an income of many thousands a year, he poured his
whole momentum into his researches. He was long en-

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