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A LECTURE ON MAGNETISM. 363

the reciprocity of this action by removing the suspended
needle, and putting the other in its place. You obtain the
same result. The attraction, then, is mutual, and the re-
pulsion is mutual, and you have thus demonstrated in the
clearest manner the fundamental law of magnetism, that
like poles repel, and that unlike poles attract each other.
You may say that this is all easily understood without do-
ing; but do it, and your knowledge will not be confined to
What I have uttered here.

I have said that one end of your magnet has a mark
upon it; lay several silk fibres together, so as to get suffi-
cient strength, or employ a thin silk ribbon, and form a loop
large enough to hold your magnet. Suspend it; it turns
its marked end toward the north. This marked end is that
which in England is called the north pole. If a common
smith has made your magnet, it will be convenient to deter-
mine its north pole yourself, and to mark it with a file.
You vary your experiments by causing your magnetized
darning-needle to attract and repel your large magnet; it
is quite competent to do so. In magnetizing the needle, I
have supposed the eye-end to be the last to quit the marked
end of the magnet ; that end of the needle is a south pole.
The end which last quits the magnet is always opposed in
polarity to the end of the magnet with which it has been in
contact. Brought near each other they mutually attract,
and thus demonstrate that they are unlike poles.

You may perhaps learn all this in a single hour; but
spend several at it, if necessary; and remember, under-
standing it is not sufficient: you must obtain a manual
aptitude in addressing Nature. If you speak to your fellow-
man, you are not entitled to use jargon. Bad experiments
are jargon addressed to Nature, and just as much to be dep-
recated. A manual dexterity in illustrating the interaction
of magnetic poles is of the utmost importance at this stage
of your progress, and you must not neglect attaining this

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