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act more powerfully on the particle than the more distant
one. Let S N, Fig. 2, be the magnet and n the particle
of north magnetism in its new position. Well, it is
repelled by N, and attracted by S. Let the repulsion be
represented in magnitude and direction by the line 72 0,
and the attraction by the shorter line 77. m. The resultant
of these two forces will be found by completing the par-
allelogram m n 0 p, and drawing its diagonal n p. Along
n p, then, a particle of north magnetism would be urged
by the simultaneous action of S and N. Substituting a

FIG. 2.




particle of south magnetism for n, the same reasomng
would lead to the conclusion that the particle would be
urged along 7?, q, and if we place at n a short magnetic
needle, its north pole will be urged along 77. 39, its south
pole along 72. q, and the ouly position possible to the
needle, thus acted on, is along the line p g, which, as you
see, is no longer parallel to the magnet. Verify this by
actual experiment.

In this way we might go round the entire magnet, and
considering its two poles as two centres from which the
force emanates, we could, in accordance with ordinary me-
chanical principles, assign a definite direction to the mag-
netic needle at every particular place. And substituting,
as before, a bit of iron wire for the magnetic needle, the
positions of both will be the same.

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