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22 PRIMITI'VE FORMS OF BUILDING [CIL III

memorial stone or the grave itself may be given the same form as
the house in which the dead man lived, in order that he may feel
at home after death. The so-called ‘hog-back ’ stones, which are
found in churchyards, or used as building materials in the medizeval
churches of the North of England, are small copies in stone of the
houses of their makers. They are probably of the tenth century
and upright posts are occasionally shown in the gable ends.

The upright posts were also called ‘crotches’ in this country
and a translator, G. Sandys, who ‘Englished’ Ovid’s [Metamorphoses
in the year 1640, rendered the passage ‘furcae subierunt columnas’
by ‘To columns crotches grew.’ The word ‘crotch,’ with the
meaning of upright post with a forked end, was carried by the
English settlers to America.

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