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x] WALLS 129

which means to stake or to pale and ‘a stake’ and ‘a stowre’ are
both translated ‘palus’ in the same vocabulary: to its compiler,
only stakes were necessary ‘ to make a howse.’

Such houses were easily made and as easily broken into. In
the Select Pleas of tile Crown of the thirteenth century, reigns of
John and Henry III‘, the thieves, whose misdeeds are recorded
therein, break either the walls or the doors of the houses indiscrimi-
nately. In the Catholz'cozz an ‘howse breker’ is ‘apercularius,’
and in the same vocabulary ‘perpalare,’ that is, literally, to get
through pales, is one of the translations of ‘to thirle,’ that is, to
make a hole. In the Gesta Rommzorum there is ‘if any thirle or
make an hole in a feble wall of a feble house.’ Our term ‘house
breaking’ is a survival from the days when thieves did actually
break the houses which they entered.

Descriptions have been given of wattlework in Kent and
Derbyshire of the most usual type, in which the twigs are woven
in-and-out of upright rods. In East Anglia a good deal of wattle
and daub seems to have had uprights only, which ‘usually consisted
of hazel sticks, about an inch thick, with the bark left on,’ as in an
example from Cross St., Sudbury, Suffolk".

In a dilapidated Tudor house at Harlton, near Cambridge, the
writer found an interior plastered partition, with studs 4 in. x 6 in.
fixed from 2 ft. to 2 ft. 6 in. apart. Each space between the studs
was filled with upright straight branches, about ten in number,
split into halves and varying in thickness from 1‘} in. to 3 in.
These were plastered on each side. Such a partition explains the
terms ‘perpalare’ and ‘feble house’ above. Later work of the
same kind about Cambridge has usually horizontal split branches,
laid over the vertical, but even so, outer walls so constructed are
very flimsy.

Somewhat similar was the method used at Saffron Walden, in
Essex, in the fifteenth century. ‘Long, split saplings of ash
and hazel, arranged vertically between each pair of timbers, were
sprung into grooves in the upper and lower horizontal beams.
They were then tied with green withy bands to short cross-pieces
wedged between the uprights. Clay mixed with short straw and
chalk was then worked in between the main timbers, thus covering

1 Edited for the Selden Society by F. W. Maitland.

2 Illustrated by Mr Basil Oliver in Old [lower and Village Buildings in East A nglia .'
Naif/011', SIWM' and Em'x, pp. 10 and 37.

I. B. c. 9

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