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upper sides of the two tiesl. A better method was that in which
each end of the stakes was fixed in a hole. In wattlework of this
kind in a house, now ruined, at Cranemoor, South Yorkshire, the
writer found that the stakes were fixed at an average of 18 in.
centres, the stakes were 2 in. in diameter, the holes were I} in. in
diameter and 3 in. deep, and the ends of the stakes were whittled
down to fit into the holes. In a cottage at Somersall-Herbert,
Derbyshire, one 'of the cross beams ‘is pierced on its under side
with round holes about Jzin. or gin. diameter, and about 15 in.
to 18 in. apart,’ evidently for former wattle stakes. All these
varieties of wattlework were designed to be put up without the
use of iron nails, which were too expensive to be used, except
with parsimony, in the old ordinary buildings.

The general and widespread use of wattle and daub in England
is shown by its varied names in the dialects. In the West of
England wattlework was known as ‘freeth’ or ‘vreath,’ and the
writer has heard it so called in the English-speaking part of
Pembrokeshire, in South-West Wales. The word is perhaps a
variant of ‘wreath.’ In the year 1436 the churchwardens of
St Michael’s, Bath, paid two pence for ‘stodyng et frethyng,’ and
in the year 1441 they paid six pence for twigs, and then two shillings
for ‘vrethyng et dawbyng.’ Later they paid for ‘staking et frethyng,’
and later again, in 1535—6, they bought ‘frithyng roddes2.’ The
churchwardens of Yatton, Somerset, paid two pence in 1446 for
‘ryses for the daubes.’ The sticks used for wattlework in East
Anglia are known as ‘ rizzes ’ or ‘ razors,’ and ‘ rice ’ is a widespread
dialect word for brushwood and small sticks. In Scotland, wattle
and daub is called ‘stake and rice,’ the rice being brushwood.
However, it is possible that the ‘ ryses’ at Yatton were rushes, for
rush and plaster partitions were common, and a South Yorkshire
example, recently destroyed, was described to the writer by its
destroyer as made of wide laths, three or four inches wide, fixed
twelve or sixteen inches apart, with rushes woven in and out, and
the whole covered with clay. The writer has been informed by an
old Carnarvonshire carpenter that in the Lleyn district, interior
partitions used to be made of rushes or straw woven into ropes and
twisted in and out of uprights, after the manner of wattlework.

Later mediaeval accounts relating to the ‘ house on the bridge ’

1 H. Hughes and H. L. North, Old Cottage: qunowa’om'a, p. 19.
2 Proceedings of tile Sal/Ic’rreIs/zz'reArcheological and Natural History Society, 1877—80.

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