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X] WALLS 131

is sometimes in stone, but more usually in timber framed buildings,
and the earliest framing was tied together, as it was in Germany
also, according to R. Henningl, who says that the primitive mode
of joining the framed building was to bind it with cord like the
scaffolding of buildings to-day. And it was so with the English
wattlework, for tying was the most primitive mode of fixing it
in a framed building. Sir Rider Haggard has described some
cottages in Norfolk: he says that these ‘at their last recon-
struction which I should judge to have taken place one hundred
and fifty or two hundred years ago, were largely built of studwork,
framed on sapling boughs, measuring about 17} in. in diameter, and
lashed to the roof beams with string,’ of which he secured some
pieces, and found that it ‘was for the -most part still fairly sound
and of a very strong and even makeg.’

More secure, and therefore more permanent, methods of fixing
the vertical round stakes were obtained by fitting their ends into
grooves or into round holes in the heads and sills of the wooden
framework of t wall. The former is the less advanced method,
and for it roug ly made grooves were run on the underside of the
head and the 11 per side of the sill: the upright posts or stakes were
cut to the requ red lengths, and then slid along in the grooves and
knocked up tight. The construction of this kind of wattlework in
South-West Surrey has been described: ‘The frame being put
together of oak, the panel is formed by fixing hazel rods upright
in grooves, cut in top and bottom, and by then twisting thinner
hazel wands round them. The panel is then filled solid with a
plaster of marly clay and chopped straw, and finished with a thin
coat of lime plaster. The same system is used for inside partitions
and occasionally the lattice is formed of oak laths3.’

In South Yorkshire there was an intermediate form in which
the upper ends of the stakes were fixed in holes or posts and the
lower ends in grooves. Occasionally the studs of lath and plaster
partitions in South Yorkshire were fixed in this manner, and at
the house at Cymryd, near Conway, already mentioned, the uprights
were wedged into holes along the sides of the principal and the
underside of the upper tie, by being driven along grooves on the

1 Deutsrfie Ham, p. 164
2 A Farmer’s Year, p. 325.
3 Ralph N evill, Old Collage and Dammit? Arc/u'la‘tun' in .S'out/z-IVeyl Surrey,

p. 19.
9—2

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