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a thicker ‘hanging’ board is called a ‘stile.’ The further stages
in the journey to the development of the complete panel door
may be traced: first came the thickening of the other outer board
or ‘stile,’ in order to carry the door ‘ fastenings,’ and then came
the placing of the battens at the upper and lower ends of the
boards, and the running of the fillets horizontally on a board or
‘ rail’ to form a decorative band, as at Midhope (Figs. 63 and 64).
The last stages in the journey were the framing of the boards into
the battens, which then became true ‘ rails,’ followed by the recessing
of the boards below the faces of the stiles and rails.

Doors are now generally panelled, except for very inferior work
or in positions where it is desired to depart from the recognised
and the conventional. Such doors are the cheapest that are made,
and so their use has become universal in such ordinary buildings as
are described in this book. We have seen that the timber is now
converted into the required scantlings in the Baltic countries, but
the exporters have proceeded further, and they now make joinery
and send it over to England almost ready for fixing. The applica-
tion of machinery to joiners’ work reaches its greatest development
in the manufacture of doors.

Those doors are still made by hand, of which the number
required is not sufficiently large for the profitable use of machinery.
Such are the doors divided either vertically or horizontally into two
parts, which have been in use in England throughout the historic

‘ Heck-door’ is the old and widespread name for a door divided
horizontally in this manner, and in which each part is separately
hung, and capable of being opened and shut independently of the
other. Such a door had many advantages, as, for instance in
houses without windows, the upper part, or upper ‘heck,’ could be
opened for light: the door of the Southern charcoal burner’s hut,
mentioned on page 25, is a heck-door, and the only means of
lighting the interior. Again, when a visitor whose intentions were
doubtful came to a house with a heck-door, the lower part only
might be opened, and if he then tried to force an entrance the
difficulty of his position put him at the mercy of the householders:
and the opening of the lower half only permitted of the going in-
and-out of the smaller domestic animals, such as pigs and hens,
which certainly lived in the English house up to the sixteenth
century, and probably later.

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