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232 DOORS [CH.

Heck-doors were in widespread and early use on the Continent.
In an old house at Ginheim-bei-Frankfort, shown in Bez'lage zzmz
Correspondenz-B/atte for September, I860, the door of the dwelling
house and the door of the cow-house are alike heck-doors
(‘quergeteilt’), and near together in the outer wall.

In the year I 703, Thoresby the Yorkshire antiquary, in a letter
to Ray, stated that a heck was the lower half of a door: and in the
\Vakefield Shepherds’ Play, the sheepstealer, having arrived home
with the stolen sheep, calls out ‘ Good wyff, open the hek! Seys
thou not what I bring?’ Here apparently the lower half of the
door was closed, and the ‘good wyff’ was peering through the
opened upper half into the darkness of the night.

The word ‘heck’ has become ‘hatch’ in modern English, in
accordance with custom, and the meaning has become obscured
with the change. The word ‘hatch’ is applied to a very small
door, such as buttery-hatch, and also to a door which is not hung,
but is pushed along to open, a survival, probably, of the small
loose, unhung door of early times. ‘ Heck’ is now only used in

The heck or hatch door was sometimes a lattice of crossed
laths, or of upright bars. Upper doors of lattice work are found in
Germany, and are sometimes hung with a withy: and in ‘ Minne—
hagen ’ a farmer uses a half door as a shield, and long before then
the Goths used shields made of wickerwork. In the English Lake
District, until recently, gates were hung with plaited withies.

In the seventeenth century, in the ‘ North country,’ the interior
of the dwelling was protected from draughts, when the half door
was open, by a partition, two and a half yards high called a ‘hollen.’
Such screens still remain in some old cottages.

Herr Rhamm has described]l a simple substitute for a heck-
door, used in the South of Germany, in the form of a half door
placed in front of a door of the full height. It is called a ‘ F allter,’
possibly a ‘ fall-door,’ although it is side-hung.

In the second kind of double door the division is vertical and
produces a pair of doors, meeting together at their unfixed sides.
Doors of this form are known as double-hung or folding doors.
The doors of the Romano-British stations on the wall in N orthum~
berland were formed in this manner, and similar doors are still in

’ Urzez'llz'dze Bauern/zofe, p. 602.

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