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use for wide openings, as the doorways of carriage houses. They
are usual in old English barns, and are then invariably of Some
form of batten door, which is a very old type, as we have already

They were also used in early times beyond the boundaries of
the Roman Empire, for in the year 446 a Byzantine named Priscus
went with an embassy to Attila, and afterwards recorded that the
houses which were built according to the style of the Goths, were
surrounded by a fence, in which was a two-leaved (‘doppel-
fliigeliges ’) doorl.

Both heck and folding doors are combined in the wooden doors
of the gatehouse arch at Wingfield Castle, in Suffolk, of the Tudor
period 2.

The earliest fastening of the door was intended to secure it
against intruders from outside, and so it was fixed on the inside
of the door: and this has persisted as a custom, supported by
experience, down to our own times, as modern stock and rim
locks, and bands and hooks show. The most primitive of the
door fastenings still in use is a loose bar which is drawn across
the door and secured at the ends. Such a bar was the accepted
mode of securing the door as recently as the seventeenth century
in many of the stone houses then erected by the smaller gentry of
South Yorkshire and Derbyshire.

In some Derbyshire churches of the Norman period, as Steetley,
the doors were fastened in this manner on the interior, and a long
hole was constructed in the jamb of the doorway, into which
the bar was pushed when not in use. There is a corresponding,
but shorter hole in the opposite jamb to receive the other end of
the bar, and to hold it fast when in position, thus securing the door.

In a fifteenth century glossary, ‘ grapa’ is translated ‘as an hol
to putte yn a barre,’ and in the same century it is translated as the
hole in which the bar rests (‘ est foramen in quo quiescit vectis ’).

Such a mode of fastening the door by a bar was in general use
in England for many centuries, but its use in the Norman period
in such important buildings as churches may be taken to imply
that it was then too superior a method for use in inferior, or even
ordinary buildings: the difficulty of the construction of the long

1 M. Heyne, Daub-cite Wo/mungswesm, p. 14.
2 See illustration in Country Life, June 28th, 1913.

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