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use in England for so long a time. It has already been described
as springing from the fireplace beam and the two cross beams or
trimmers, which ran into it, and in Fig. 72 there is shown the
remains of such a chimney or flue in a cottage at Thurgoland,
South Yorkshire. The cottage has been ruined for over thirty
years, and although it was only of one storey, without any chamber
in the roof, the beams themselves are the survivals of a cottage
much older than the one which has been unoccupied for so long, a


Fig. 72. Ruined cottage at Thurgoland, South Yorkshire, showing the
‘bressummer’ or fireplace beam, which carried the ‘hood’ or smoke
chamber above the fire. The piece cut out of the beam was for a doorway,
by the side ot the ‘ speer ’ or screen, to the entrance porch. The fireplace
in the background is a later addition.

cottage with a door by the side of the fireplace, and a ‘ speer ’ as a
screen, as is shown by the upright post, and the pointed arch cut in
the beam. The stone fireplace, and the chimney behind the beam
replaced the original open hearth and hood, and they can hardly be
more than a century old.

Such a great chimney or flue tapered upwards to the roof,
and was generally made of plaster on laths, or more usually on
wattle, or it was formed of less substantial materials, such as cloth
or brown paper, as in some Scotch cottages at the present day.

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