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xv] WINDOWS AND CHIMNEYS 267

In the Welsh farm-house, near Strata Florida Abbey, shown in
Figs. 35 and 36, the fireplace beam did not run entirely across the
house, but was carried by a post at one end. The ho'od was of
plastered Wattlework, and at the side was a shelf of the same
material, but unplastered, as a roosting-place for the poultry.
There was neither stove nor range—simply a hearthstone, and a
backstone against the walll'. The chimney was not raised above
the roof.

It is not surprising that very few of the old hoods now
remain. From them were copied the canopied fireplaces which
are illustrated so profusely in Mr L. A. Shuffrey’s book on T he
Erzglz's/z Fireplace and its Accessories. In one example from the
north tower of Stokesay Castle, in Shropshire, illustrated by
Mr Shufi'rey', the old wooden tradition was followed in the fire-
place beam and its trimmers or cross beams, but all the rest was
made of ashlar stone. In the Norman example from Conisborough
Castle, in South Yorkshire, which is shown in Fig. 73, the whole
fireplace, including the beams, is of stone, and the mason has
laboriously copied the straight wooden beams of the carpenter
in ashlar, and obtained a level beam by the .use of a series of
joggled joints. Another fireplace at Conisborough has a longer
beam, but is without the stone copies of the wooden trimmers.

In some of the earlier Norman castles of stone, the stone hood
is associated with the smoke-hole in the wall. In some examples
the hole still remains, a mere slit. Mr Shuffrey describes how it
was arranged in connection with the fireplace, and carried through
the wall. He points out that one external opening probably
‘proved very inefficient for carrying away the smoke during
certain conditions of the wind,’ and at Castle Hedingham the plan
was adopted of making the flue discharge right and left on either
side of a flat buttress. Such Norman flues are intermediate in
type, though not necessarily in date, between the simple smoke-
hole in the wall, and the more developed flue rising vertically in
the wall to discharge in a chimney stack.

In a somewhat obscure description of a hall written by
Alexander Neckham, in the thirteenth century, the louvre was
in the wall and was used as a window (‘specularia’).

1 There is an illustration of this fireplace in Archwalog‘ia Cambrensis, XVI (1879),
PP- 320—5.
9 p. 17.

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